Ultra-pure water is produced from drinking water. Different processes remove dissolved salts and other undesired ingredients - in particular germs. Processes used are:
- Ion exchangers
- Reverse osmosis (RO)
Typically, the water is cleaned in two stages. End products are:
- Demineralized or deionized water
- Purified water (PW or aqua purificata AP)
- Highly purified water (HPW)
- Water for injections (WFI)
Guidelines (e.g. pharmacopoeas) define the requirements for water quality with respect to conductivity and microbial properties. Germs may exist and grow in ultra-pure water. Hot sanitization (temperatures >75°C) is an accepted method for killing germs. The advantage of this method over chemical processes (e.g. ozonization) is the fact that nothing has to be added to the water. Sensitive processes will not be disturbed.
For heating ultra-pure water we produce electrical flange heaters and flow-type heaters, of course with a design which is suitable for this application. Without any pockets or only a few pockets, specified surface roughness and/or electropolished design: everything is possible without any problems.