Shell-and-tube heat exchanger


Tubular heat exchangers transfer the thermal energy of a fluid to another one. Therefore, their name is tubular heat exchanger. The fluids involved are mainly liquid but can also be gaseous. The type and properties of the fluids, pressures and temperatures as well as the desired operating points in the process are important for the design.

One fluid in the tubular heat exchangers transfers the energy, and this energy is transferred to the other fluid through the pipe wall. Here, it is important that the design be matched to the general conditions, for each fluid has its specific properties.

The advantage of tubular heat exchangers over plate heat exchangers is their higher pressure resistance and sturdier type of design. The disadvantage is a somewhat worse heat transfer as the larger design provides the same performance.

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Fluid connections

For example, the following fluids are cooled and/or heated by tubular heat exchangers:

I. Water

  • Drinking water
  • Circulating and/or heating water
  • Softened water, observe the maximally admissible chloride content
  • Ultra-pure water; here, a low-pocket or pocket-free design with a defined surface quality is useful in most cases.
  • Fully desalted water

II. Oil

  • Heavy oil, not pumpable in a cold condition
  • Hydraulics oil
  • Lubricating oil
  • Insulating oil
  • Heat transfer oil
  • Fuel oil, diesel

III. Gases

  • Air
  • Natural gas
  • Flue gas
  • Nitrogen
  • Steam as a heating fluid or for the generation of steam

The fluids involved and their temperatures mainly define the material which can be used for the wetted surface or surfaces involved in the heat transfer. Otherwise, corrosion may quickly result in a failure of the flow-type heater, for example.

Materials of the wetted components:

  • Carbon steel
  • Corrosion-resistant stainless steel
  • Heat-resistant stainless steel
  • Titanium, Hastelloy, special materials
  • Brass

The tubular heat exchangers can be delivered without insulation (for a customer-provided insulation) or with insulation. The insulation can be designed as follows:

I. Insulation material

  • Mineral wool with a galvanized or aluminium-coated metal jacket
  • Diffusion-tight or gas-tight insulation
  • Insulation for indoor or outdoor installation

We are prepared to agree with you on the type and position of the fluid connections.. The following connections are available:

I. Fluid connections

  • Standard flanges (DIN, ASME, SAE etc.)
  • Female or male thread connections
  • Clamp flanges
  • Sterile flanges
  • Dairy-type pipe connections
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